Thursday, March 31, 2016

Chakma Autonomous District Council: A meagre 'importance' among ADCs in North-East India

By Suman Chakma

Centre Releases Rs 1000 Crore for Northeast Tribal Councils

     While appreciating the decision, the Forum of Councils under Sixth Schedule (FOCUSS), an umbrella body of ADCs, which was formed at a meeting of all the ADCs in Shillong on July 8 last year urged the Centre to continue with the aid till the ADCs are no longer included under Article 280 of the Constitution.

     The three Autonomous Districts in Mizoram will receive  Rs 16.86 crore along  with Tribal Councils in North-East States  as the Minority of Tribal Affairs has sanctioned Rs 1000 crore 'special assistance ' grant for Fiscal Year 2015-2016. Among the trio, Chakma Council will receive the least proportion of share (i.e. 0.484 % against total amount) while, Mara Council will receive the lion's share. In fact, the Chakma Council will receive the most least (literally not important) share among all the Tribal Councils in North-East India.

     Although, the reasons behind the distribution may be under various provisions of  the Constitution but, will it always be the same for the ADCs in Mizoram in general and Chakma Council in particular for which they always complaint and fall injustice. 
     Three Autonomous District Councils (ADCs) in Assam has the maximum share with the Bodoland Territorial  Council (BTC) getting the maximum share of Rs 421.02 crore alone and the rest two will get Rs 188.77 crore.

     Those in Meghalaya will get Rs 267.4 crore, while Rs 16.86 crore was earmarked  for the three ADCs in Mizoram and Rs 175.95 crore for the only one in Tripura.

      The ADC-wise  break-up is as follows: -
The Chakma Autonomous District Council in Mizoram - Rs 4.58 crore.
The Lai Autonomous District Council - Rs 4.64 crore.
The Mara Autonomous District Council - Rs 7.64 crore.
The North-Cachar Hills Autonomous Council in Assam - Rs 24.66 crore.
The Karbi-Anglong Autonomous Council - Rs 94.11 crore.
The Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council in Meghalaya - Rs 133.12 crore.
The Garo Hills Autonomous District Council - Rs 100.71 crore.
The Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council - Rs 33.57 crore.
The Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council in Tripura - Rs 175.95 crore.

     The Central Plan stipulates that the Central Assistance Scheme is meant for road development, construction of toilet facilities, playgrounds, schools, bus sheds, water reservoirs, etc.

Related Article:
1. Chakma Autonomous District Council uniqueness among ADCs in India

Saturday, May 2, 2015

Why there need to have Chakma History Association?

By Suman Chakma

Why the Chakma History Association (CHA) is a must?   

          Due to lack of authentic record, documents/evidences, datas, of the origin of the Chakmas, Scholars differ on the origin and history of Chakma or ancient Chakma history, as there are no written historical references to the Chakmas before the 10th century A.D. However, from the 10th century A.D. on wards, there are references to the existence of the Chakma people in the Burmese and Arakanese history. The accounts of Hutchinson, Capt. Lawin and others could not give proper light on the origin of the Chakmas. Their accounts also seem to be based on hearsay and manipulated histories as the Hindus tried to show the Chakmas as Hindoos and the Muslims as Mohamedans. The Chakma chronological history, called 'BIJOK' also seems self-contradictory sometimes. However, all the writers boasted of the originality of their manuscripts and that the original manuscript was written in Bamunih (Brahmi) and on Palm Leaves which have been handed over to them by their elders stating those were recorded by their forefathers. The legendary folklore singers, Geinghulees (folk songs) also fail to give a consistent account of the origin of the Chakmas. All these Bijoks and the folk songs based on traditional beliefs which have been transmitted from generation to generation. However, all the writers of 'BIJOK' and 'GEINGHULEE' singers mostly agree on the following points on the origins and history of the Chakmas that -

1. Chakmas are Suryo Vangshi and Khattriya,

2. They are the descendants of the Sakyas,

3. Their original capital was Kalapnagar,

4. Their second capital was Champaknagar,

5. They conquered new land to the south-west of 'CHAMPAKNAGAR' by crossing the river Lohita and named it Kalabagha after the able General. The capital of this new land was also named Champaknagar after the previous Capital. From this Champaknagar, the prince and the Governor of Kalabagha, Bijoygiri led expedition against the Mugal (Mongol) with the help of the Hosui Troops, provided by the King of Tripura.

6. During this expedition, Radha Mohan and Kunjha Dhan were his commanders and they conquered many countries which include the Magh, Kukis, Axas, Khyengs, Kanchana Desha, and other kingdoms making Chadigang as their base. These expeditions said to have lasted for twelve years for Radha Mohan and Khunja Dhan.

On receipt of the news of conquering new land by Radha Mohan and Khunja Dhan, Bijoygiri went forward up to Safrai Valley to receive the commanders and returned back to Chadigang with them. Here, he learnt the news of his father’s death and of his younger brother ascending of throne. After seven days of mourning for his father, he decided not to return to the Kingdom but establish a new Kingdom at Safrai Valley. He also gave option to his men to return to the old Kingdom or live with him. Radha Mohan is said to have returned and Khunja Dhan remained with him. He also permitted his men to marry girls from the defeated kingdom. He himself married an ARI girl and thus established a new Kingdom named RAMPUDI (Ramavati) at the Safrai Valley. Afterwards, Kalabagha Kingdom was annexed by the Tripura King and communication with the old Champaknagar was totally cut off. The capital of the Chakma kingdom was later named Manijgir. In 1333, Burmese king Mengdi or Minthi with the help of the Portuguese attacked Manijgir or Moisagiri through deceitful means and brought its downfall. He made King Arunjug his captive along with the subjects and settled them in different places. After a hard attempt a group of the Chakmas could somehow make a habitation at MONGZAMBROO. After sometime they had to flee again to CHOKKAIDAO of Kaladan due to unbearable atrocities of the Magh. From Chokkaidao, they sought permission for settlement in Bengal and Nawab Jalaluddin, the son of Raja Ganesh granted them settlement in twelve villages at Chadigang. It was only in 1418 they could flee to Bengal and settle in twelve places leaving behind the group of Doinaks and the followers of the second prince, in Burma, where they lived for about 100 years. There the people intermarried with the Burmese and gradually adopted the Buddhist religion. From these twelve villages, after many ups and downs, the Chakma Kingdom was established at Chittagong Hills Tract (CHT)in or around sixteenth century, when Bangladesh was governed by Muslim rulers, before the arrival of the British. Then, the British transformed it into a mere Circle. The said Chittagong Hill Tracts was awarded to Pakistan in 1947 during India’s independence. 

It is believe that, on arrival in CHT, the Chakma Chiefs had made a business contract with the Muslim rulers, promising to pay revenue or tax in cotton. In return they were allowed to live in the hill region and engage in trade with the larger society. By the late eighteenth century, British authorities had established themselves in the southeastern districts (commonly called CHT) of Bangladesh. The British formally recognized a definite territory of the Chakma raja (the paramount chief). In 1776, Sherdoulat Khan became the Chakma Raja. He fought unsuccessfully against the British. Further fighting between the Chakma and the British took place between 1783 and 1785. In 1787, Raja Janbux Khan, son of Sherdoulat Khan, made a peace treaty with the British government, promising to pay the latter 500 maunds of cotton. The British recognized the office of Chakma Raja throughout the rest of their rule. Different Chakma Rajas maintained good relations with the authorities of central administration and the Chakma increasingly came in contact with the Bengali people and culture.

According to the Chakma historians, the rulers of the Royal Chakma Kingdom was most powerful ever than others Raja (King) in this region in the 6th century. As per as Chakma historians as well as early Buddhist historical evident that the Chakma Raja Bijoygiri, belong from Campa or Champaknagr (now Bhagalpur) in the Kingdom of Anga which was Bengal (now West Bengal and Bihar); came and settled down in the present Jummaland along with his Royal family and large military troops. His father, Raja Samargiri, who was belong from Sakya clan and was most powerful ruler of Kingdom of Anga in the early 6th century. He had two sons, named Prince Bijoygiri and Prince Udaigiri.

The following prominent Chakma Raja's are:

1. Raja Samargiri (6th century): Chakma Raja Samargiri was the ruler of the Kingdom of Anga now Bihar and West Bengal). Its capital city was Campa or Champaknagar (now Bhagalpur in West Bengal). Some other important cities are Bhaddiya, Assapura, Kacangala, Girivraja, etc. The people are mostly living Sakyas in the Kingdom and they are Sakyamuni clan, who founded Buddhism in India in 544 BC. Raja Samargiri has two son, named Prince Bijoygiri and Prince Udaigiri. After his died, his son Prince Udaigiri became king in the Kingdom of Anga.

2. Raja Udaigiri (651 AD-745 AD): In around 680 AD, Prince Udaigiri became successor of his father. He was ruled the Kingdom of Anga until 745 AD. But the two brothers lost their relationship from centuries to centuries. According to historical, cultural, logistic and linguistics evident that the group who was under the younger brother Raja Udaigiri, the ruler of Anga the people at present living in Nepal, Garo Hills in Meghalaya, Darjeeling in West Bengal. And the group who was under elder brother Raja Bojoygiri, who established Royal Chakma Kingdom, they are the Chakmas, Chak, Tanchangya, Dainak, Thek, Tsak living in Tripura State, Jummaland, Mizoram, Arakan State, etc.

3. Raja Bijoygiri (605-698 AD): In 630 AD, he was conquered Tamarlipitka countries (now Assam, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Arunachal, etc.) and whole region bring under his control. In 645 AD, conquered theKingdom of Tripura and established “Royal Chakma Kingdom” in the Region permanently. In around648-49 AD, build a Royal Buddhist Temple named “Raj Benuvan Buoddha Vihar” at Anguli (nowAgartala). After ten years ruled in the Region (645-665 AD), he further decided to march toward the east in order to conquered new territories. When they arrived in the eastern Region (Hill Tracts, Cox's Bazaar,Chittagong, Rangunia, etc.) was “no man land” during that periods. So, without any battles and less effort, Chakma Raja Bijoygiri occupied and captured the whole Regions under his control. The no man land areas became under the Royal Chakma Kingdom. In 666 AD, he was transferred his capital city fromRangamati (now Udaipur) of Tripura to Rangamati of Hill Tracts permanently. In 674 AD, he captured the Kingdom of Kuki and his only son Prince Devagiri has been killed by the Kuki army during the war. From 645- 680 AD, the areas of Hill Tracts, Cox's Bazaar, Chittagong, Rangunia, Kingdom of Tripuraand Kuki Territory was under the Royal Chakma Kingdom control by the Chakma Raja Bijoygiri, than was most powerful King in this Region. In 682 AD, he further conquered the Kingdom of Roang (nowArakan State of Myanmar). Chakma Raja Bijoygiri became a great powerful King ever had seen in the history of Chakma Dynasty. In 698 AD, he was died at the old age of 93 years at the capital city of Roang. After he died, his successors gradually lost the whole territories from Roang King, Kuki King and Tripuri King.

4. From 7-10th centuries: No any Chakma Raja's appeared in the Chakma history that the Royal Chakma Kingdom was under the control of Roang Raja's and Tripura Raja's, who was the powerful Kings, ruled for 300 years in this Regions.

5. Raja Kamal Chega (1095-1179 AD): After 300 years ruled by the Roang and Tripura Raja's; theChakma Raja Kamal Chega reunified the Chakma Kingdom Movement in Roang in 1118 AD. His wifeQueen Manikbi also morally supported the movement to unified the Royal Chakma Kingdom. After build his large armies, Raja Kamal Chega fought with Magh King of Roang in 1118 AD. The battle was lasted over one year. He was recaptured the Kingdom of Roang and bring the whole Kingdom including Roang, Hill Tracts, Chittagong, Rangunia and Cox's Bazaar under his control in 1119 AD. He established Royal Chakma Kingdom in the Regions. In 1122 AD, he shifted the Royal capital from Roang to Raja Nagar of Rangunia permanently. Later in 1125 AD, he recaptured the Kingdom of Tripura and some adjacent areas of the Regions. Since than Royal Chakma Dynasty became powerful and existed. He was established his ruled more than 60 years. In 1179 AD, at the age of 84, he was died at Raja Nagar of Rangunia and his successors lost the Kingdom partly (Feni Valley and Khagrachari division) from the King of Tripura in1240 AD.

6. Raja Marekyaja (14th century): Raja Marekyaja recaptured the Regions from the King of Tripura and the Kuki Territory and established his ruled 14th century. The whole Regions was then an independent Buddhist Kingdom ruled by Chakma Raja's until 1575 AD. But, in 1575 AD, the Chakma Raja's lost theRoang Kingdom in the battle from Arakan King and continued possession the Regions till 1666 AD by theArakan King. In fact this region frequently changed hands between the rulers of Chakmas, Tripuras and Arakanes King from 7th-15th centuries.

7. Raja Julab Khan (1639-1681 AD): In 1666 AD, Chakma Raja Julab Khan recaptured the Kingdom of Arakan including Chittagong, Hill Tracts and Kuki Territory. Later in 1671 AD, he captured the Kingdom of Tripura. He was died at the young age of 42 years in 1681 AD in the Royal Palace of Raja Nagar, Rangunia.

8. Raja Sulab Khan (1651-1686 AD): After the Raja Julab Khan died, his son Prince Sulab Khan, became King in the Royal Chakma Kingdom in 1681 AD and he was ruled only for 5 years.

9. Raja Kalu Khan (1662-1700 AD): Raja Kalu Khan became successors of the Royal Chakma Kingdomin 1686 AD. He was ruled for 24 years until 1700 AD.

10. Raja Fateh Khan (1671-1725 AD): In 1700 AD, he became a successors of the Royal Chakma Kingdom; in 1705 AD, Raja Fateh Khan captured two canons in the battle from the Mughal Empire and in 1713 AD, he was made a “Peace Treaty”.

11. Raja Jalal Khan (1707-1737 AD): Raja Jalal Khan became a King in the Royal Chakma Kingdom in1725 AD. He was re-established the treaty with the Mughal Nawab. He was ruled the Kingdom for 12 years.

12. Raja Shermusta Khan (1712-1773 AD): In 1737 AD, Raja Shermusta Khan became Raja in theKingdom. On 15 October 1760 AD, the British led several military expeditions against the Chakma Raja Shermusta Khan to establish their colonial footing in the Royal Chakma Kingdom. During the Raja Shermusta Khan ruled, the geographical area was bounded by the Nizampur Road and Bay of Bengal to the west, 1/3rd Kuki Territory to the east, the Feni River to the north and Sangu Rivers to the south. The first battle of the Raja Shermusta Khan with East India Company ensued in 1772 AD and subsequent battles with Raja Sher Dawlat Khan from 1777 to 1780 AD, it was lasted four years.

13. Raja Sher Dawlat Khan (1750-1780 AD): In 1773 AD, Raja Sher Dawlat Khan became successors of the Royal Chakma Kingdom. He was fought with the British from 1777 to 1780 AD, and lasted for four years.

14. Raja Jan Bux Khan (1757-1787 AD): In 1780 AD, Raja Jan Bux Khan, became successors of the Kingdom. In 1782 AD, Raja Jan Bux Khan and his Supreme-General Rono Khan formally battles against the British East India Company. Finally, he was compelled to signed a “Peace Treaty” in 1787 AD, which named as “Cotton Treaty” with the East India Company at Fort William in Calcutta. The war was ended when the British had imposed an economic blockade and forced the Chakma Raja Jan Bux Khan for a negotiation settlement. This was the beginning of the British hegemony over the Royal Chakma Kingdom.
The subject matter of the treaty between the Governor General of British and the Chakma Raja Jan Bux Khan was as follows: (1) The East India Company recognised Jan Bux Khan as the Raja of the Royal Chakma Kingdom; (2) It was agreed that the collection of revenue was the responsibility of Raja; (3) The British government would preserve Chakma Autonomy and migration from the plains; (4) Jan Bux Khanwas bound by the treaty to maintain peace in his Royal Chakma Kingsom; (5) British troops would remain in the Royal Chakma Kingdom not to terrify the Chakmas but to protect the land from the inroads of the fierce tribes.

15. Raja Tabur Khan (1765-1798 AD): In 1787 AD, Raja Tabur Khan became King in the Royal Chakma Kingdom.

16. Raja Jabbar Khan (1767-1815 AD): In 1798 AD, he became successors of the Royal Chakma Kingdom.

17. Raja Dharam Bux Khan (1794-1831 AD): In 1815 AD, he became successors of the Kingdom.

18. Raja Shukdev Roy (1810-1851 AD): In 1831 AD, became successor of the Royal Chakma Kingdom.The Royal Palace was located at Rajanagar of Rangunia. According to archaeological evident that a Royal Buddhist Temple named “Dharma Chakra Vihar” was established in 1750 AD at Rajanagar by the Chakma Raja Shukdev Roy.
19. Queen Kalindi Rani (1830-1873 AD): In 1851 AD, she became first Chakma Queen in the Royal Chakma Kingdom under the British East India Company. In 1852 AD, she was established Ranir Pond (now Raja Hat) at Rajanagar. During her rule on June 20, 1860 AD, the Royal Chakma Kingdom was divided into two parts as Chadigang (Chittagong) and Chittagong Hill Tracts-CHT or Parbatya Chittagong by the British East India Company without her concerned (Notification No 3302). Former part is known as “ Chadigang or Chittagong” which was included into Bengal as a regulated district and later part is known as CHT Region, which was retained as non-regulated district with a limited Autonomy under the Governor-General of British India. Since than the Chittagong district separated from the Royal Chakma Kingdom and administration gone from the hand of Chakma Rani Kalindi. Queen Kalindi was strongly resisted against the British decision on the creation of CHT Region. In 1864 AD, she was invited to Venerable Saramitra Mahathera of Arakan to established Bhikkhu Sangha lineage in the Royal Chakma Kingdom. By Royal patronage, Venerable visited along with a group of Sangha member an organised Upasampada ordination at Chadigang and Rangamati. More than 20 Buddhist monks took higher ordination from Chakma and Marma communities. Since than Theravada Buddhism is existed in the Kingdom. According to historical evident that 117 years (1757-1874 AD), Rajanagar of Rangunia was the capital city of the Kingdom and was by the Chakma Raja's independently.

20. Raja Pagla Mama Daroga (1834-1874 AD): In 1873 AD, Raja Pagla Mama Daroga became King in the Kingdom for one year.

21. Raja Harish Chandra Roy Bahadur (1853-1876 AD): In 1874 AD, Raja Harish Chandra Roy Bahadur became successor of the the Kingdom. He was transferred the capital from Rajanagar of Rangunia to Rangamati in 1874 AD.

22. Raja Bhuvan Mohan Roy (1856-1934 AD): In 1876 AD, Raja Bhuvan Mohan Roy, son of Raja Harish Chandra Roy Bahadur became Raja of the Royal Chakma Kingdom.

23. Raja Nalininako Roy (1902-1952 AD): In 1934 AD, Raja Nalininako Roy, son of Raja Bhuvan Mohan Roy became Raja in the Kingdom.

24. Raja Tridiv Roy (1933- ): In 1952 AD, Raja Tridiv Roy, son of Raja Nalininako Roy became Raja in the Royal Chakma Kingdom. In 19 47 AD, he was fled to Pakistan for political reason. He died in Pakistan on September 17, 2012.

25. Raja Devashis Roy (1959- ): In 1947 AD, after fled Raja Tridiv Roy to Pakistan, his son Raja Devashis Roy became Raja in the Royal Chakma Kingdom. Since 1947 AD, to till today, he is theChakma Raja in the Royal Chakma Kingdom. His son, Prince Tribhuwan Arydev Roy was born in 1990 AD. Unfortunately, his wife Rani Tatu Roy was died in 1998 AD, for cancer at Dakha Medical College in Bangladesh.

PARTITION OF INDIA: Injustice done to the Chakmas
  • During Partition (August 1947), India was divided on the religious line. 
  • Muslim-majority areas went to form Pakistan
  • Surprisingly, Chakma-dominated Chittagong Hill Tracts of present day Bangladesh formed part of Pakistan even though Muslims were only meager 2 %. 
  • The Partition axed the Chakma life. It was the doom day.
  • The Chakmas have been patriots. 
  • They fought against the British, and did not allow the conquerors to conquer them. 
  • Following the Partition, they were celebrating the Independence Day on 15 August 1947 by unfurling the Indian tricolour in Rangamati, the main town of CHT. 
  • It was pity that they did not even know they were already Pakistanis, much against their own will. The Pakistani troops pull down the Indian flag.
The Chakmas could not give a united stand against the injustice done. Indian government did not do much significant. It failed to recognize  the Chakmas’ contributions and sacrifices during the freedom movement.

  • Given the communal division between India and Pakistan, that the Buddhist Chakmas would be persecuted in Muslim Pakistan was a foregone conclusion. 
  • Chakmas were brutally killed, tortured, attacked and their women folk raped under the Pakistan rule. 
  • In 1964, the Kaptai Dam reservoir was built that submerged around 44% of the CHT’s agricultural lands and made tens of thousand Chakmas homeless and foodless. 
  • Those displaced were neither rehabilitated nor compensated nor treated well. Thousands became IDPs and refugees.
  • In 1971, Bangladesh was liberated with India’s help. 
  • But that did not bring any change in the policy of the Muslim government towards the Chakmas. 
  • With active participation of the Bangladesh military, the Chakmas were attacked, massacred, kidnapped, and raped and their houses burned. 
  • There was no reprieve. Life was no longer livable. Hundreds fled from their homes to escape from attempts at their lives.  

  • The Rulers have turned into Refugees, courtesy the brutal policies of the successive governments of Pakistan and Bangladesh. 
  • In 1964, around 30,000 indigenous Chakmas displaced by the Kaptai Hydro-Electric dam in CHT of then East Pakistan migrated to India. 
  • They were given settlement by the government of India in the North Eastern Frontier Agency (NEFA), the present Arunachal Pradesh, after consultation with the local tribal chiefs. 
  • While being shifted to the NEFA, Government of India issued valid migration certificates to the migrants and assured them of citizenship rights in due course.
  • “They came in a hopeless, pathetic condition, just with the clothes that they wore” recalls one senior Mizoram official, who was part of the Assam government team that received the Chakma in the Cachar and Lushai hills.

How the Chakmas are lagging behind the Mizos in Mizoram? 

Establishment of the North East India History Association (NEIHA): 

The establishment of the North East India History Association (NEIHA) in 1979 has served an eye opener and encouragement on the part of Mizo historian to initiate an association on Mizo history. They were convinced that wrong and vested interest interpretation on history is very harmful and therefore it needs very careful handling since it involves the vital question of national integrity and of communal and racial sentiments of the people. With this end in view, Mizo History Association (MHA) was formed on September 23, 1980 in the office chamber of Darchhawna, Officer –On-Special Duty, NEHU, Mizoram University Campus, by an august body of a few members of Mizo historian. The founder President was Darchhawna while the founder General Secretary was Lalrimawia, Lecturer and Head of Department of History, Pachhunga University College, Aizawl.

The main objective of the association is the promotion and encouragement of the scientific study, systematic writing, analysis and research of the history of the Mizos, holding of conference, seminars and symposium connected with the said history and publication of the proceedings, journals and other works of the Association.
The Association was registered with No. SR 1 of 1981 under the Society Registration Act XXI of 1860 on January 23, 1981. The first General election cum General conference was held on October 25, 1980 at Mizoram State Library Hall, Aizawl.

Tuesday, February 10, 2015

BORAPANSURY: A Hypothetical Analysis on controversial MZP “Zofate Chawlbuk” set up at Borapansury

By Suman Chakma

For flashback and details click here...    

Source: The Borapansury Times

     Newton says that, “For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction”, which may assume indicatively true or an automated opportunity for the Chakmas not only of abovesaid place but also of entire Chakmas, as a whole, generated by the MZP (Mizos) in Mizoram. 

From this, the MZP has created two possibilities for the Chakmas to survive in Mizoram.

First, it may lead the Chakmas into 'opportunity' by disseminating that the majority Mizos are continuously ignoring, harassing and depriving the minority Chakmas  by the Government of Mizoram. So, there need to create for them an alternative to safeguard the rights of the minority community in the state. As such by upgrading the present Chakma Autonomous District Council (CADC) into an Union Territory for which they have been pursuing since from very long time or for time being, the CADC will get direct funding from the Centre, so that there can't any involvement or interventions by the state government (Mizos).

Second, the Chakmas will strengthen ('immunise') themselves by confronting the Mizo's every regular way of oppressions and suppressions or any other form of nefarious activities. 

Dangu Partosh Chakma, Coordinator, Asian Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Network (AITPN) and Co-Founder of Mizoram Chakma Development Forum (MCDF) clearly analyse the possibilities in his article 'Mizoram: Creating Unequal Citizens and Conflicts'.

1. How it may be an Opportunity or an Immunity for the Chakmas?

I. As an Opportunity:

     Presently, it may be adversely good but we have to nose only for the opposite one for our own health, wealth and family in this sort of situation. As there is a Chakma proverb, saying “Togele he nopai, guye gille parbo dur pai”  (meaning; Everything is possible).

For to bring impossible into reality, we have to be very conscious, cooperative, sincere and diligent in each and every step we are to take from grassroots level to higher level i.e. from village level to administrative level not for provoking and magnetizing communal conflict but for protecting of our own and fleeing ourselves from regular external pressures (physically, socially, politically) from major group like Mizos in Mizoram. Though, not all Mizos are alike, neither we are.

We have to put a collective efforts to work all hand in hand from civil NGOs to political groups to enlighten the Chakmas and restore our ancestral territory (western belt) in present Mizoram.

Comparatively and literally, fighting by any means for the Chakmas in Mizoram is like fighting an helpless Ant with a furious giant Elephant in all aspects. Mizoram as a whole except Chakma dominating area (western belt) is compared to a giant elephant and latter to an ant. Even though, in practical an elephant is afraid of an ant. But, it is not possible for the Chakmas in Mizoram. 

The government either existing or opposition is planning and executing everything as they will to abstain the Chakmas even from basic amenities in and outside CADC in Mizoram, and the Chakmas have to remain as the silent spectators as no favours are surfaced from the centre. Thus, it is only way a must necessary or opportunity for the Chakmas to unite and survive in the state.

II. As an Immunity:

     In simple words, immunity is the ability of an organism or an individual to protect itself from external agents by acquiring defensive mechanism naturally and or artificially.

Likewise, for the Chakmas in Mizoram they are acquiring tactics and strength from the Mizos by confronting their day to day way of oppressions and suppressions or any other nefarious activities. 

Now, the Chakmas are also well aware of their political machineries and have to stand and work accordingly to introduce commensalism in Mizoram rather than to propagate more currently existing communalism to attain communal harmony, and retain Mizoram a peaceful state for prolong. This is what I really want Mizoram to be.

2. Is it only Politics or Propaganda ?

     For politics, need the leaders, leader represent peoples, and peoples are the one who hold the most power to appoint leaders.

If  it is or not a controversial that allowing space for Chawlbuk to set up at Borapansury was also a part of treaty by the Thanhawla’s government of Mizoram for the Chakma representative in exchange to providing the status or vice versa or both. This weakness of the Chakmas ought to be get rid of if the former one is true.

Eventhough, actual reasons for how the MZPs got the permissions to set up Chawlbuk at Borapansury is yet to be known. Though, Chakma NGOs have alleged that MZPs are constructing it illegally. 

Thus, the Mizos crudely hurt the sentiment of the Chakmas in Mizoram towards harmony between the pair of communities.

Note: This may be taken as consideration or may be discarded as unnecessary argument, which I described here above, and is completely based on personal satisfaction. 

Read More: MZP begins construction of controversial "Zofate Chawlhbuk" at Borapansury

Friday, January 9, 2015

Indian Railways or Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation Limited (IRCTC): Who held responsible for this irresponsibility ?

By Suman Chakma
Kamakya to Chennai Premium train/025208
     Every one knows around, this that, it is every easy to defame or allege others blindly sans knowing the fact for which or who is actually responsible for the accusation or related blamable act. But, this is also right that it can not be ignored such blunder at all.

Here goes one of such incident which occur within the moving environment, into which no one of the staffs or workers or Travelling Ticket Examiner (TTE) who carrying out all the immediate activities inside so patiently like distributing water bottles, food stuffs, sleeping clothes which were attached with the respective seats or checking tickets so seriously if concern passenger who board on the moving object is with genuine documents/IDs and if not he (TTE) can charge him/her enough amount of money from the faultee to make his pocketing spilling full, accept at any cost that he or they (all the staffs working within) held responsible or no one other than the system itself alone is solely responsible for these promise services which remain an undone job, which I shall refer you later.

How it may affects/inconvenience the passengers if the responsibility is not being carried out ?

     There may be numerous of difficulties, varying from one passenger to the others. Let me put this one and only which I faced within my coach or cabin B4, 3 AC while I was travelling.

I was travelling and sharing my cabin with some Khasi fellow passengers from Shillong, Meghalaya, who as soon as I entered the coach asked me if I could switch my seat with one of them who got seat in the other cabin and switched later that seat with another non-tribal woman after I denied. Of whom (my fellow passengers), one of the women (aged) also speak Hindi and sometime Garo, to her I was confused whether she was a Khasi or Garo or she was just a helper with the others who were going to hospital for health check-up.

They chewed betel nuts (pan) every now and then all along the journey and also sometimes ask me whether I want to chew as well.

Though, it can be learnt from their appearing activities inside the room that they all are close relatives (kith and kin) and bond family as some of them are aged while others are under teens, who after my queries said that they are going for health check-up at Apollo Hospital, Chennai. One of their daughter (minor), who has got hole inside her heart, but luckily has already filled in the hole after her first operation and follow up.

Now, from health check-up I recall the water of the toilet (which of course they changed in the next morning) that are filled in which I already  checked before I introduced myself in the reserved coach was more worse than those some country drain water, which means the water which we were given to use inside for brushing, washing/cleaning purposes does not even meet the standard level or quality of water for domestic purposes.


My point here is, if the passenger who already sick is going for fourth time check-up including this one. What will be her health condition after using such water who is already so severely sick and has to visit hospital for fourth time. And who held responsible for such negligence ?

Chitchats/interactions with the employees ?

There, I asked one (employee) who is working within within near the toilet. Brother, "why the water is so reddish brown (rusty) inside the toilet and taps...?". He replied no word. Then I came by to my seat. Again later, while distributing dinner I asked the same question to another worker, why the water is so reddish brown (see video above) inside the toilet and taps...? Thank god he atleast replied, he said that it is not our responsibility, TTE has already checked and verified it. Then I asked, why you people serve veg even after ordering non-veg, again no reply.

After some time, when the dinner is already done and we were having a little chat among fellow passengers inside the cabin. There came by another boy to enlist the order for next day break fast. Again, I asked him (as he was frank), what is the point of asking the order if you were to serve veg only even after ordering opposite. He [smiled] said, you will get tomorrow sir !, which is very generous to me calling sir and then I went to bed (i.e. at upper berth).

Around 7 am, the next very morning I was alarmed by the calling of hookers "Chana Khabe? Bhujiya Khabe ?" [at distance (voice approaching near)]. I thought, what is this happening inside the AC coach ? In addition, we were also running late otherwise, the journey was totally friendly and comfortable.

I am taking here all about the train named KAMAKYA-CHENNAI PREMIUM, a brand new and one of best travelled on from 7 to 9 January, 2015 (Officially first trip).

As I was failed to approached the authority, I write this on my blog to do my bit as a fellow responsible citizen in order to bring changes in the person who held responsible for or the system, rather not to harm any one in the train including all employees.

Monday, September 8, 2014

What darkness awaits for the Chakmas in Mizoram?

By Suman Chakma

  There is a saying, "Your Past Leads To Your Present, Your Present Leads To Your Future" which holds true and gives all the unforeseen answers for the current situation of Chakmas in Mizoram. The Chakmas have been facing discrimination since from time immemorial and are facing even more now. So, according to the author, the Chakmas will be facing extreme and acute situation in close future due to rapid advent of racial Mizo's atrocities and various nefarious schemes (by the Mizoram government). 

OK! Let me erased all, whichever and whatever happened before from the creation of self-rule for the Chakmas in the form of Chakma Autonomous District Council constituted on 29th April in 1972 under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India within Mizoram state, which really hurt the Mizo community, for they wanted to make Mizoram as "Mizo Rome' till a moment before 'MZP Chawlbuk' issue at Borapansury were to begin, which was otherwise silent and remain within state boundary even though sometimes MCDF crosses that boundary so as to highlight the serious issues Chakmas are facing in Mizoram.

But, then this silence and peaceful process turn on to show-off from both the sides, which further ignites them as a challenge for both the communities.

How the Chakmas are always loosers and Mizos are winners?

Both the communities uses madia as their weapons, who releases statements blaming one against the other. A few of them are given below, which is attached as such published by the various sources.

Media coverage | on 3 June: Mizo Zirlai Pawl is illegal land grabber, say Chakmas

In Brief: 

On 23rd Aug 2013: MZP with large number of cadres visited Borapansury. One among many visits. MZP cadres forced local residents to remain locked inside their homes.
Physically assaulted a person and made him stand in Jesus Crucifix position under the hot sun for hours. The MZP not only humiliated the local Chakmas but also insulted Jesus Christ by forcefully repeating his crucified post.

11th March 2014: All India radio Aizawl announced about MZP's impending visit.

13th March 2014: Local residents submitted petition to the DC- Lawngtlai District for security citing reasons why they fear MZP's move and hence oppose.

2nd May 2014: MZP with 35 cadres visited the Borapansury. Put up illegal signboards at the encroached land (2500+ sqm) site. MZP cadres defecated in the open in spite of available toilets, to humiliate the local residents. Demanded forced labour whenever they come to construct MZP Chawlbuk at the encroached site. Ordered local people and VCPs to look after the signboards. Ate eatables from many shops without any payment. Demanded dog meat to be served when they come to visit next.

21st May 2014: Joint petition to CEM-CADC, governor, Home Minister, DC-Lawngtlai etc. for justice.

22nd May 2014: CEM of CADC clarified with a letter that No land has been allotted to MZP and shall not be allotted.

23rd May 2014: CEM-CADC wrote to DC-Lawngtlai to remove the illegal encroachment at Borapansury.

30th May 2014: Seeing no response from the State authority and left with no option the local people with the help of JAC (combining all NGOs, all political parties and Community elders) submitted a final appeal to the authority through the CEM-CADC to remove the encroachment within 2nd June 2014, else public decided to peacefully boycott the upcoming MDC bye-election at Borapansury-II on 4th June 2014 to make their issue heard by the State Govt.

31st May 2014: Instead of Govt authority to discuss the matter with local residents MZP cadres lead by its president Lalmachhuana arrived at Borapansury. Sought to meet the Joint Action Committee leaders, verbally threatened of bloodshed if they are not allowed to do whatever they like at the encroached land site, and accused every Chakma of being a foreigner. MZP cadres put up another sign board.

1st June 2014: MZP team visited Borapansury again and left Borapansury only after the MDC by-poll was boycotted peacefully sans any retaliation by the local Chakmas which was after warning, if the MZP do not remove their Chawlbuk from Borapansury. They are silent does not mean that they can't, but they want Mizoram to be peaceful, which is good for one and all of the Mizoramans.
All the above shenanigans operated by the MZPs at Borapansury led by its President, Lalmachhuana is a far wrong direction for the entire peoples of Mizoram towards peace and prosperity. In my opinion Lalmachhuana is not even qualified for the membership of MZP if the Organization truly aims that they are the strongest and more active organization towards safe guarding and making MIzoram a Peace, Prosperous and a Corrupt-free state. Read full article in Meri News and here.

However, here also the Chakmas remain as the loosers and Mizos as winners like other time.  MZP cadres constructed their Chawlbuk successfully on 25 June with the help of Mizoram state Polices.

Read related news: Mizo govt beefs up security in Chakma area. 

Media coverage | on 4 June: The Chakma community members did not cast a single vote during the bye-election to the member of the Chakma Autonomous District Council in the Boranpansury-II seat today after a boycott call by the NGOs and political parties. No ballot was cast in any of the three polling stations. The NGOs including the Young Chakma Association (YCA) and political parties boycotted the bypoll after the Mizo Zirlai Pawl (MZP) or the Mizo Students Federation displayed a signboard in Borapansury-I village where the student body has proposed to construct 'Zofate Chawlbuk' or the 'Mizos Inn'. The Chakma community members protested the allotment of government land to the MZP inside the area of the CADC.

MZP signboard at Borapansury
MZP cadres on full swing 
Mizoram Police supporting MZP
Reports from the election authorities at Borapansury-II said that while all the official polling parties were in the polling stations, not a single election agent or voter turned up to exercise franchise.The bypoll in the Borapansury-II seat of the CADC was necessitated after the seat was vacated by the former Chief Executive Member of the CADC Dr B D Chakma who was elected to the Mizoram legislature in the 2013 state assembly polls and later became a minister of state. The same report also published in other popular dailies like The Hindu, The Shillong Times, Business Standard, New Karala and others. 
Constructed MZP Chawlbuk at Borapansury

Media coverage | on 17 June: The Chakmas have refused the allegation on abnormal growth of population alleged by the Mizos, which was published in several dailies. Some of them are Mizo News (Mizoram government ignoring Chakmas' plight), Seven Sisters Project (Mizoram: Chakmas refute allegation of unaccounted growth in the community), Kanga Online (Mizoram government ignoring Chakmas' plight - Mizo News), The Telegraph and The Mizoram Post (MCDF concerns with the apathy of the Mizoram govt and vengeance politics).

Media coverage | on 20 June: Reacting to the statement released by the Mizoram Chakma Development Forum (MCDF) on June 17 and published by several websites and newspapers which that blamed ZNP for intentionally misrepresenting facts about Chakma population and that accused Mizo Zirlai Pawl of illegally grabbing land at Boranpansury in Chakma Council area for the construction of Zofate Chawlhbuk, Zoram Nationalist Party (ZNP) said there is no question of illegal land grabbing by the student organisation. 

ZNP said Chakma bodies were misinterpretation Mizo sentiments on national paper and social media. The party alleged that Chakmas for several times had maliciously distorted the image of the Mizos by misrepresenting and misinterpreting the latter through social media in and outside Mizoram.

ZNP further warned Chakma boides that in case of any outbreak of violence and untoward incident over the construction of Zofate Chawlhbuk at Borapansury, it will be their sole responsibility. Mizo News ( on June 20.

Media coverage | on 26 and 27 July: All India Chakma Convention held in Silchar.

The Mizo Zirlai Pawl (MZP) has reiterated its demand for excluding Chakmas and three other communities from Category-I of State Technical Entrance Examination 2014.

MZP in its press release stated that they have urged the authority to withdraw within this month (August 2014) the inclusion of Chakma and three other communities in the Category-I of the State Technical Entrance Examination 2014.
MZP vows to take further action if their demand is not fulfilled.

Media coverage | on 30 August: ZNP Vice President K. Liantlinga while attacking at the ruling Congress said that the government are trying to protect the bangladeshi foreigners mentioning the Chakmas only for the purpose of vote bank politics. He even called the Chakmas low culture and marginalised section of the society, which was appered in The Mizoram Post (Want of Chakma votes necessitate Chakma protection: K. Liantlinga).

From the above few words commented by Liantlinga on the Chakmas, one can see, the Chakmas is surely to suffer even more if the minority party like ZNP and others were to come in power by any how, even though the Chakmas are suffering now.

Media coverage | on 1 September: The Chakmas (Chakma National Council of India (CNCI)) in its release declared that the Chakmas in Mizoram are the indigenous residents of western part of the
Media coverage | on 2 September: In response to the previous release by the Chakmas, Higher & Technical Minister R. Romsaid that the Chakmas are not the indigenous residents of Mizoram which was published in popular Mizo daily Vanglaini (H&TE Minister leh MZP-te'n STEE chungchang an sawiho) and (Chakma-te Mizoram mi dik takah an inngai)In this way either the Mizo NGOs or the government of Mizoram always allege the Chakmas, which is why the Chakmas always remain as the failure as every machineries of the government of Mizoram target the Chakmas.

On 6 September: Chakma Delegation Team led by BJP MP Shri Tarun Vijay submitted a memorandum to Shri Kiren Rijiju, Union Minister of state for Home against the proposed Head-counting census of the Chakmas in Mizoram. The same is available at Tarun Vijay, MP blog (Breaking News-Mizo Buddhists Chakmas meet Minister of State for Home ).

Media coverage | on 8 September: "Chakma census may ignite separatism," says Mizoram MLA T.T.Zothansanga, which also appeared in several dailies like Mizo NewsThe Mizoram Post (Chakma census may induce separatism: Parl Secy T.T. Zothansanga), The TNT Magazine and Vanglaini (Smart card driving licence siamna hawng John-a'n Chakma chhiarpui neih áš­ha lo a ti).

Mizoram government is not in favour of conducting census on Chakma population in Mizoram. T.T. Zothansanga, Parliamentary Secretary yesterday said. 

"It is important to be careful while taking steps to safeguard the land and the nation (of the Mizos). Therefore, the plan to conduct census of Chakma population in Mizoram could rather be creating a step for them to pursue separatism". 

He was addressing the inauguration of SMART CARD based DL & RC in Kolasib.

As reported earlier, the Mizoram government has last month asked Central Mizo Association (CYMA) to put on halt their plan to conduct Chakma census, State Home Minister has told the YMA leaders that it acknowledge that their plan to conduct Chakma Census arises out of their love of the Mizo nation and to safeguard the same.

While lauding YMA for its genuine love for the "Mizo nation", he also told YMA leaders that it is necessary to take caution that conducting census out of sheer nationalism could result in disunity. The Home Minister further has stated it would be against the Constitution to conduct a census for one particular community within Mizoram, and therefore, asked YMA not to go ahead with their plan as of now.     

The Home Minister called on YMA leaders to cooperate with the government in properly maintaining village register which is meant for keeping record of genuine settlers of each village. He further suggested that a systematic plan be made such that this village register is tabled in the Legislative Session, adding, the same would be a good means of preventing illegal entry of outsiders. Concerned over an "abnormal increase" of Chakma population in southern Mizoram, the state's largest organisation Young Mizo Association has decided to conduct a census on Chakma population in the state to check Chakma infiltration.

Chakma issue topped the agenda of the YMA central executive committee meeting in Aizawl early last month. The meeting decided to collect Rs 5 each from all the YMA member in Mizoram to conduct the gigantic task.
This donation box was placed by MZP
in every outlet in Aizawl to construct
"Chawlbuk" at Borapansury.

"The census on Chakmas will be conducted soon in the Chakma Autonomous District Council areas in southern Mizoram and other parts of the state," said Lalbiakzuala, President of YMA central committee. "It (census) is necessary to study the rapid growth rate of Chakma population and further check Chakma influx from the neighbouring Bangladesh," he added.

The YMA meeting also has decided to put more pressure on its demand for removal of Mizoram minister of state Dr B D Chakma from the Cabinet. The YMA had earlier written to Chief Minister Lal Thanhawla to remove Chakma from his Cabinet for his (Chakma) for his participation in a poll boycott against allocation of land in Chakma autonomous District Council for construction of a Mizo guesthouse by Mizo students body's Mizo Zirlai Pawl.

Protesting the allocation of land to the MZP in Borapansury under CADC, various Chakma organisation had boycotted by-election to Borapansury-II seat on June 4 last, B D Chakma allegedly led the protest.

Later, the Chakma minister allegedly offended the YMA by participating at a Chakma national convention in Silchar recently where it was resolved that Chakma-inhabited areas in Mizoram be put under the Chakma Autonomous District Council.

Besides the YMA, Mizoram's apex students' militant body Mizo Zirlai Pawl (MZP) has raise the issue of Chakma "infiltration." The MZP alleged that Chakma population in southern Mizoram has abnormally increased during the last few years.

Conclusion: Though the CYMA put an halt in conducting census on Chakma population in Mizoram for as of now. But, it is the right time for the Chakmas to take necessary steps and to prove that the Chakmas are the indigenous residents of the western part of Mizoram, who knows what darkness awaits in the future.

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